The muscular system plays an important in the functions of the human body. It is responsible for the human body movement. Each type and part of the muscular system come with a specific purpose. Find out everything that you need to know about the functions of the muscular system on the following page.
About the Muscular System
The muscular system is attached to the bones of the human skeletal system. It can be said that the muscular system is a set of tissues within the human body that can change shapes. Cells of the muscles are connected and become an important part of the skeletal system. Each time the muscle cells contract, they will create a force, making your body move. There are about 700 different muscles fill up half of the body weight. Each of them is a discrete organ built from muscle tissues, tendons, nerves, and blood vessels.
Muscular Muscle Type
Muscular muscle comes with 3 different types. They are visceral, cardiac, and skeletal. Here is a brief explanation of these 3 types of muscular muscle.
Visceral muscle is mainly found inside of human organs. These include blood vessels, intestines, and stomach. Compare to the other two types of the muscular system, the visceral is considered the weakest one. This type of muscular system leads your organs to contract so that the substances can be moved through them. It comes with a prominent role to move foods along the digestive tract. Not only that but the muscle also functions to maintain blood circulation through blood vessels. Visceral muscle is also known as an involuntary muscle due to the unconscious part of the brain that controls it. Being included in the involuntary muscle means that visceral can’t be controlled by the conscious mind directly. Visceral muscle does not come with stark bands of protein. Additionally, the myosin and actin fibers of the visceral muscle function to squeeze the cells when contracted. Most of the time, visceral muscle is also described as “smooth muscle” for this reason. The muscle is also called so since it comes with a very smooth and uniform look when viewed under a microscope.
A cardiac is another type of muscular muscle. Unlike the two other types of muscular muscle, cardiac is only found in the heart. Experts reveal that your heart is often considered the hardest-working muscle of your body. It is responsible to pump blood throughout your body. Cardiac muscle is also called myocardium and mainly found in walls of your heart. The muscle also comes with a single central nucleus that looks like a smooth muscle. Just like visceral, cardiac muscle can’t be controlled consciously, making it in the involuntary muscle group. Cardiac muscle will stimulate itself to contract each time signals and hormones from the brain adjust the construction rate. The cells of cardiac muscles are connected to adjacent cells. This allows the muscle to make more of contractile movements to pump the blood throughout the heart. You also need to know that cardiac muscle tissue is the place where the natural pacemaker of the heart is created. It is aimed to stimulate the other cardiac muscles in the heart to contract. Cardiac muscle is intricately controlled. It is considered to be auto rhythmic controlled due to the muscle self-stimulation. The cells of the cardiac muscle tissues are striated. It means that the appearance of the cells has dark and light stripes when you view them under a microscope. The distinctive look of the cardiac muscles is mainly because of the protein fibers arrangement. The striations found in the cardiac muscles can also be a signal that the muscle cells are strong.
The skeletal muscle gets its name from the fact that it is usually connected to at least one skeleton within the human body. Unlike visceral and cardiac muscles, skeletal muscle is a voluntary muscle. In other words, skeletal muscle can be controlled consciously. This type of muscle is responsible for every physical action done that needs skeletal muscle movements such as walking, running, writing, speaking, and more. You need to keep in mind that the skeletal muscle of your body comes with a specific function to contract. In this way, the muscle can move parts of your body closer to the bones where it is attached to. Most of the time, skeletal muscles are attached to two bones across a joint. Hence, muscles could move parts of the bones closer to each other. Not only that but this type of muscle also moves the limbs of an organism. Skeletal muscle cells are constructed each time smaller progenitor cells gather to form straight, long and multinucleated fibers. Just like cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle is also striated, indicating that the muscle fibers are strong. The striated muscle also comes with different bands of protein in each myofibril. The protein will slide past each other and pull the muscle cell ends together when they are given energy. Meanwhile, the function of actin and myosin of the skeletal muscle is to produce the banding.
How the Muscular System Works
So, how the muscular system of your body works? Well, the muscular system usually contracts when energy derived from ATP is applied to the heads of myosin that can be found in its protein filament. After that, the myosin heads will release the actin until it reaches forward and then grips the actin once again. The release of actin will lead the protein filament to move and the fibers to contract. However, different forms of myosin and actin can be used in the process, depending on the muscle cells. You also need to keep in mind that the muscular system of the human body highly depends on the coordinated actions of the myosin filament and actin. They usually pull in the same direction and the process is done at the same time as well. To get all the actions coordinated well, the nervous system will innervate muscles. The nerve signals that come from in the brain and then transfer to specific muscles will make it possible for you to simulate particular muscle issues. In this way, you can do various coordinated actions like swimming, jumping, running, and more.
Main Functions of the Muscular System
The muscular system comes with many functions. Take a look at the main functions of the muscular system on the following list.
The muscular system plays a crucial role in the human body movement. It is responsible for any mobility you make. Each time the muscles in your body contract, they will allow you to do a gross and fine movement. Gross movement made by your body comes with large and coordinated motions. These include swimming, running, walking, and more. Meanwhile, fine movements that you make usually involve smaller actions. These include facial expressions, speaking, writing, and more. Most of the time, the muscle movement of the human body is done under conscious control. However, your body might do reflexive movement sometimes like withdrawing your hand from a hot subject.
The circulation function of the muscular system is mainly conducted by smooth muscles and involuntary cardiac. They produce electrical impulses to help you with hear beat and allow your blood to flow through your body. The movement of the heart muscle is under unconscious control. The muscle will automatically contract each time it is stimulated by electrical signals. Also, smooth muscles found in the veins and arteries are responsible for blood circulation throughout the body. They keep the blood circulation and blood pressure on the normal levels to avoid dehydration or blood loss. The muscles improve the blood flow when your body needs more oxygen during an intense exercise.
Digestion is one of the main functions of the muscular system. Smooth muscles that are found in the GI tract (gastrointestinal) that stretches from the mouth to anus play an important role to control the digestion system. With the help of the muscles, foods will be taken through the digestive system by using peristalsis. This a wave-like motion that occurs in the digestive system. It allows the muscles found in the walls of hollow organs contract and relax. It allows the muscles to move and pushes foods from the esophagus to the stomach. During the movement, the upper muscle in your stomach will relax to let foods to enter the area. Meanwhile, the lower muscles of your stomach will mix all the particles of the foods with stomach enzymes and acids. After that, with the help of peristalsis motion, the digested foods will move through the stomach into the intestines.
4. Temperature Regulation
The muscular system also functions to keep your body maintain its normal temperature. You need to know that about 85% of the body heat is generated by contracting muscles. Each time your body temperature drops below its normal level, the skeletal muscles will automatically increase their activities to produce heat. In this way, the body temperature can be generated. Meanwhile, the relaxation of smooth muscles found in the blood vessels will help you to bring back the temperature of your body into a normal range. The relaxation motions will help your body to improve the blood flow. Not only that but it will also allow you to release excess heat throughout your skin in the form of sweats. One of the most common examples of this mechanism is shivering.
Each time you breathe, it requires the work of diaphragm muscle. It is a dome-shaped muscle that can be found below the lungs. Your chest cavity will turn bigger instantly once when the diaphragm muscle contracts and pushes downward. Then, your lungs will be filled with air. The diaphragm muscle will then push air out of the lungs when it relaxes. However, you will need help from other muscles when you want to breathe more deeply. The other muscles needed in the breathing mechanism include the ones located in the neck, back, and abdomen.
The urinary system of the human body requires work from both smooth and skeletal muscles. They include the muscles you can find in the kidney, bladder, urethra, ureter, prostate, penis, or vagina. All the muscles and nerves located in the areas should do coordinated movements to hold as well as release urine from the bladder. The dome of the bladder is constructed by smooth muscles. When these muscles are tightened, they will allow you to release urine. However, you can hold your urine when the muscles relax. The damages that occur on the nerves that carry signals to the urinary system will lead people to suffer from urinary problems like retention of urine or poor bladder control.
The muscular system also functions to give you posture. The system will make it possible for you to keep your body in its correct position when you are standing or sitting. However, you need to keep in mind that it requires flexible and strong muscles to allow you to have a good posture. Tight hip muscles, weak back muscles, and stiff neck muscles will lead you to have poor posture construction. Not only that but the weak and less flexible muscles will also cause misalignment of your body. Long-term and poor posture will increase the risks of several health problems in the future. These include joint pain that occurs around the neck, back, shoulders, hips, spine, knees, and other areas in your body. Not only that but bad posture will also make your muscles weaker.
One of the main functions of the muscular system is for stability and protect your spine. The muscle also stabilizes your body and helps to do several heavy tasks including lifting weights. This function is mainly found in muscle tendons that stretch over joints. Some of the most important muscle tendons you can find in the body are the ones located in the shoulder joint and knee joint. The muscles tendons found in the joints play a critical role in stabilization. Most of the time, the core muscles are located in the abdomen, pelvis, and back. You need to keep in mind that the stronger your core the better stability that your body has.